How Provincetown’s Delta Cluster Reshaped Its Restaurant and Nightlife Scenes

Alex Morse, the city administrator of Provincetown, Massachusetts, wasn’t overly involved when two new circumstances of COVID-19 have been reported on July 9, 2021. The Cape Cod seashore city — a small chunk of land on the easternmost level of Massachusetts referred to as a hub for LGBTQ tradition, nightlife, and the humanities, particularly in the course of the summer time — had simply celebrated the Fourth of July, which meant an inflow of vacationers strolling up and down Business Avenue, its major thoroughfare, popping into retailers, bars, eating places, and dance golf equipment. Sporadic circumstances have been to be anticipated, however Provincetown had accomplished the work to guard itself towards the worst outcomes of the pandemic: Some 95 % of its momentary and everlasting residents have been totally inoculated.

Just some days later, although, Morse seen one thing odd: a line of automobiles backed up in entrance of Outer Cape Well being Companies. The well being middle had been a web site for COVID testing and vaccination all through the pandemic, but it surely was immediately overwhelmed. On July 12, Morse known as the Massachusetts Division of Public Well being and requested that it deploy a cell testing web site within the middle of city. It was put in two days later, and by July 16, in keeping with Morse, it grew to become clear that Provincetown was on the epicenter of a COVID cluster. Alarmingly, a majority of the individuals testing optimistic for the virus have been purportedly totally vaccinated.

The Provincetown cluster is now recognized to have been brought on by the extremely contagious delta variant, which is at present chargeable for greater than 80 % of recent infections within the U.S., and has halted a lot of the nation’s plans for a traditional(ish) summer time. Contact tracers have thus far related greater than 900 circumstances to the cluster, roughly three-quarters of which occurred in totally vaccinated individuals, referred to as breakthrough infections.

Within the days and weeks after it grew to become obvious that COVID-19 had unfold all through the group, even to completely vaccinated individuals, Provincetown’s dance flooring, bars, eating places, and retailers emptied — exactly at what would usually be the peak of the summer time season, when many companies generate the overwhelming majority of their revenue for the yr. The delta outbreak in Provincetown appears to be receding — on July 26, the municipal authorities issued a masks mandate requiring vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals to put on masks indoors, and Provincetown’s each day positivity fee has dropped greater than 10 share factors, to three.8 % as of August 4. However operators of restaurant and nightlife institutions say that enterprise stays down within the wake of the cluster and press protection of it — as a lot as 50 % under pre-delta numbers for some — they usually’re apprehensive that one other wave might set off the tip of the summer time season. Employees, in the meantime, are involved about misplaced wages and the heightened potential of getting sick on the job. These situations depart open the query of whether or not Provincetown’s eating places, bars, and golf equipment can recuperate their misplaced enterprise within the remaining month of summer time, and many house owners are unsure.

On the identical time, Provincetown’s outstanding test-and-trace effort — pushed by native nurses, enterprise homeowners, staff, residents, and guests alike — proved very important for the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention’s understanding of how the delta variant infects vaccinated individuals. It’s now recognized that individuals contaminated with the extremely infectious pressure of COVID, together with those that are totally vaccinated, carry large quantities of the virus of their nostril and throats: as much as 1,000 instances greater than individuals contaminated with the unique pressure of SARS-CoV-2, making it extremely transmissible. “The queer group has a historical past of standard testing, and I feel it’s a testomony to our group, and the way critically we take our well being,” Morse says. “Right here in Provincetown, in fact, however within the queer group usually. There’s additionally a priority and care not only for your self, however for others round you too. And I feel that’s been very evident right here and is one thing that we needs to be pleased with as a group.”


Provincetown consists of just below 18 sq. miles, and most of that’s occupied by dunes, seashores, and forestland. Business Avenue, the place life takes place on the town, is simply 2.5 miles tip to tip; one can bike its complete size in underneath quarter-hour. And but on this small expanse of area, and totally on or adjoining to this single road, it’s doable to search out nearly no matter you’re searching for by way of nightlife. There are leather-based bars, fancy cocktail bars, bars that host drag exhibits, dive bars, lesbian bars, and straight bars. There are small and sweaty basement dance golf equipment, and there are massive and ethereal beachside dance golf equipment. Some DJs pander to their crowds with pop music, and others spin esoteric information meant just for the cool children.

Provincetown’s nightlife scene is, in a phrase, legendary, and within the days and weeks main as much as the Fourth of July, the vibe was celebratory. Writing within the Atlantic, Spencer Kornhaber mentioned the temper round city was “jubilant” and described a scene at a celebration in a basement bar that featured “fog machines, glittery outfits, funky home music, and oppressive, humid physique warmth” the place the DJ and crowd participated in a call-and-response to Jennifer Lopez’s “Ready for Tonight.” Individuals had returned to the packed dance flooring of the Atlantic Home and Paramount, they usually have been going out to see drag queens like Dina Martina carry out on the Crown & Anchor.

And why wouldn’t they? It was Sizzling Vax Summer time, in spite of everything. The CDC mentioned in Could that totally vaccinated individuals might safely resume most actions indoors and outdoor with out carrying masks or socially distancing themselves, and the vaccination fee in Provincetown was larger than virtually anyplace within the nation. Individuals on the Outer Cape have been able to social gathering, and the message from the federal government was that in the event you have been vaccinated, it was comparatively secure to take action.

“There was a tough seltzer at 10 within the morning type of vibe,” says Rebecca Orchant, who owns the favored West Finish cafe and provisions store Pop + Dutch together with her husband Sean Gardner. “I walked down the road after a shift on the store at 4:40 within the afternoon and there was a man who was carrying a cocktail down the road — which isn’t uncommon or stunning — carrying a tank high that mentioned ‘vaccinated and able to fuck.’ And I used to be like, ‘I hope you get to, I hope that is going to give you the results you want.’”

Steven Schnitzer, who owns a pair of eating places and Velvet Bar, a well-liked nightclub positioned just a few blocks from MacMillan Pier — the place many vacationers fortunately disembark from ferries at the start of their Provincetown holidays and drowsily reboard on the finish — says that the consuming and eating trade was having a banner summer time within the months earlier than the delta variant started spreading by means of city. Gross sales have been up in contrast with previous years, and his servers and bartenders have been raking in ideas. “All people needed to social gathering,” says Schnitzer. “They couldn’t wait to kick their sneakers off and dance, order an extra-tall drink, and really feel as if life was renewed.”

However then all of these automobiles began lining up outdoors Outer Cape Well being Companies. Quickly after that, it was clear that COVID was surging in Provincetown. The joyous vibe shortly shifted to one in every of nervousness. Dance flooring have been immediately much less packed — some shut down totally in consequence — and fewer individuals have been going out to eating places and bars. Mark Louque, who runs a legendary costume and dance social gathering known as F— Bash within the basement of the Governor Bradford restaurant, and who examined optimistic for COVID in the course of the delta cluster, hasn’t hosted one in weeks. As a result of Louque’s social gathering takes place in a basement, air flow is poor, offering COVID with the right situations to unfold. He plans to stay closed till the optimistic take a look at fee is under 3 % for 5 consecutive days, consistent with the city’s masks mandate. Louque says this hurts financially, however he desires to point out the group that he cares about well being and security above all — even when he doesn’t precisely agree with the masks mandate, which he calls “a bit harsh.”

For the reason that masks mandate went into impact, the cluster is receding: As of August 4, Provincetown’s five-day optimistic take a look at fee was at 4 %, down from 13.5 % on July 18. However the results of the outbreak proceed to linger, and nightlife is bearing the brunt of them. Emerson Breneman, a DJ primarily based on the Outer Cape, says most of his Provincetown exhibits have dried up, although his work in close by Truro and Wellfleet has been unchanged. Schnitzer closed his membership, Velvet, quickly after the outbreak started. Weeks later, he says individuals on the town nonetheless appear nervous — he isn’t seeing anybody out at evening aside from vacationers — and that he’s so short-staffed at his eating places, which share an area together with his membership, that he can’t danger dropping anybody to a COVID an infection.

Louque, the DJ and promoter who runs the favored social gathering within the basement of the Governor Bradford, thinks the city ought to have ready higher for a state of affairs like this. “Six months in the past, we should always have had a plan in place for when, not if — as a result of all of us knew that this uptick in circumstances was going to occur once more,” he says. “There ought to have been a plan in place to nip it within the bud actually shortly, and have all staff and all companies conscious of what might probably occur [when] the numbers go up. They didn’t do it. They fucked up. And now there’s lots of people which can be ravenous.”

Nightlife isn’t the one trade struggling in Provincetown. Rob Anderson, the chef and proprietor on the Canteen, a well-liked Business Avenue restaurant recognized for its lobster rolls and beachfront patio, says he’s seen a 35 % lower in enterprise since information of the delta cluster broke. “That’s an enormous hit for us as we head into August,” he says. “In a seasonal economic system like ours, no less than 25 % of our annual revenue is available in in the course of the one month of August. A 35 % drop throughout city [would] imply a variety of financial ache for lots of people who have been lastly anticipating to usher in some revenue after a yr and a half of not making a lot cash, or any cash in any respect.”

Some operators are blaming the renewed masks mandate, which requires all individuals no matter vaccination standing to put on masks indoors, for a few of their issues. They and their staff are those anticipated to police masking necessities, in spite of everything, they usually’re exhausted. Nonetheless, some are making it work: Orchant and Gardner at Pop + Dutch have centered their operational technique on takeout at some point of the pandemic, so the reinstated masks mandate hasn’t affected their enterprise. However Orchant understands why some enterprise homeowners are sad concerning the measure. “For some eating places and nightclubs and bars — locations the place, in Provincetown, staff come to make their cash for your complete yr — proper now, a masks mandate type of fucks them,” she says. “Companies have been tremendous sluggish since then, and I completely perceive why. However there must be a hybrid method. And that has to return from the governor.”

Morse, the city administrator, additionally believes that intermittent masks mandates aren’t the reply going ahead. He and the municipal authorities are at present contemplating the viability of a pair of vaccination mandates, one for workers and one other for purchasers. The primary is a voluntary program to certify that each one workers at a given institution have been vaccinated; the second would require proof of vaccination from patrons, with a give attention to giant efficiency venues and golf equipment. Morse thinks such measures are inevitable. “In the long run, our method out of that is vaccination,” he says. “It’s not a sustainable resolution to have masking in perpetuity, or have masking one week and no masks the subsequent. It’s a brand new regular, and vaccination long-term is what must occur.”

Some venues have already taken it upon themselves to require proof of vaccination for entry. Tea Dance, a well-liked noon dance social gathering and social gathering that takes place on a big beachfront patio and pool space on the Boatslip lodge, has required all of it summer time regardless of the outside setting. For Louque, of F— Bash, mandating proof of vaccination is a no brainer. “I 100% suppose that has to occur,” he says. “Having reliable proof of vaccination needs to be required at each indoor area in your complete nation.”

However Anderson, of the Canteen, says that the controversy over the brand new masks mandate and potential vaccination mandates has “actually accomplished a quantity on us right here. There’s a variety of infighting, and a variety of bitterness on all sides.” There’s additionally a way amongst Provincetown’s enterprise group that the state authorities allow them to down. Orchant thinks the statewide COVID restrictions have been lifted too rapidly — Gov. Charlie Baker rescinded them on Could 29, two months prior to initially deliberate — and left companies in Provincetown scrambling to open at capability and with out restrictions after greater than a yr of doing the alternative.

“It was type of loopy for individuals who personal companies and work out right here to determine it out,” Orchant says. “Like, ‘Oh, are we simply gonna go forward and do this, just like the 1000’s of {dollars} of Plexiglas, technological developments, and studying run a fucking web site — all of that’s for nothing now? Okay, cool!’ So I feel lots of people actually simply have been like, ‘Fuck it, let’s throw open the doorways and attempt to get as a lot cash as we probably can.’ As a result of we’ve such a brief season out right here.”


The Fourth of July features because the unofficial kickoff to summer time in Provincetown, and it’s adopted shortly by Bear Week, marked by a gathering of furry and incessantly bigger homosexual males. Each weeks are sometimes extraordinarily busy. This yr, the Fourth was beset by rain, and lots of actions which may have in any other case taken place outdoor have been moved indoors. This probably contributed to the delta variant’s skill to unfold so shortly. In a paper launched on July 30, the CDC mentioned that 469 COVID circumstances have been recognized amongst Massachusetts residents who travelled to Provincetown between July 3 and 17, and that 346 of these circumstances, or 74 %, occurred in totally vaccinated individuals; testing recognized the delta variant in 90 % of specimens taken from 133 sufferers. The info additionally reported circumstances amongst residents from 22 different states who traveled to Provincetown in the identical time interval, indicating that the cluster was probably brought on by somebody touring to the city from outdoors of Massachusetts. (Provincetown board of well being chair Stephen Katsurinis mentioned as a lot within the Washington Publish.)

“Massachusetts is, I imagine, the second-most vaccinated state within the nation, in order that signifies that anyone coming to Massachusetts from some place else, no matter that inhabitants is, there are fewer vaccinated individuals,” says Dr. Robert Horsburgh, a professor at Boston College who specializes within the epidemiology of AIDS and tuberculosis. “The actual fact is, we don’t dwell on an island. Summer time individuals come up right here, they usually come to a variety of locations, and anyplace that individuals come to, once they’re coming from a spot that’s much less vaccinated, goes to extend your danger.”

Seventy-nine % of breakthrough infections related to the Provincetown cluster have been symptomatic, however as a result of Provincetown’s vaccination fee is so excessive, it didn’t see a major uptick in hospitalizations related to the cluster. Extra crucially, the cluster didn’t result in any deaths. (It’s price noting that the COVID disaster remains to be largely pushed by the unvaccinated.) For Stephen Kissler, a postdoctoral fellow within the division of immunology and infectious illness on the Harvard T.H. Chan College of Public Well being who Eater spoke with by way of e-mail, the Provincetown cluster is much less of a catastrophe and extra of a hit story, no less than by way of how different communities may method comparable conditions going ahead.

“Importantly, circumstances have been low when the outbreak occurred,” says Kissler. “This allowed the test-and-trace infrastructure to do its job effectively with out being completely overwhelmed. Positivity charges in Provincetown are dropping shortly, reflecting each the success of test-and-trace and the worth of excessive vaccination charges in the neighborhood — regardless that the virus can unfold, it has a a lot tougher time. This can be a lesson for different cities: If we hold baseline unfold managed, we’ll have a a lot simpler time coping with flare-ups once they happen. When flare-ups do happen, testing, tracing, and masking may also help push circumstances again down, so long as vaccination charges are excessive sufficient.”

Dr. Céline Gounder, an infectious illness specialist at Bellevue Hospital in New York, informed the New York Occasions that the information assortment effort in Provincetown was “some of the spectacular examples of citizen science I’ve seen” and mentioned that the individuals concerned “have been meticulous in making lists of their contacts and exposures.”

The excellent test-and-trace effort, carried out in collaboration between native nurses, enterprise homeowners, staff, residents, and guests, allowed the CDC to make use of the Provincetown information as a key piece of proof when it introduced lately that totally vaccinated individuals ought to resume masking in public indoor areas in elements of the nation the place the pandemic is surging. Quite a lot of individuals Eater spoke with attributed the homosexual group’s vigilance round COVID testing and tracing to a heightened consciousness of viral transmission — a consequence, partly, of its cultural reminiscence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its ongoing affect. “I don’t discover that [vigilance in testing and tracing] stunning contemplating that these of us who dwell and work listed below are a decent, community-centric, principally progressive city with a historical past of coping with plagues, caring for one another, and feeling personally chargeable for defending ourselves and others from viruses — or every other threats, for that matter,” says the Canteen’s Anderson.

Nonetheless, a narrative emerged round the concept the delta unfold was brought on by recklessness within the homosexual group. Louque, who runs the social gathering within the basement of the Governor Bradford, says it was “a really catchy story to seize onto and attempt to level a finger, and say there’s this catastrophe in Provincetown.” Quite a lot of different Provincetown enterprise homeowners and staff Eater spoke with have been additionally crucial of the media’s protection of the cluster. Breneman, the Outer Cape DJ, is annoyed by the concept vacationers unfold the delta variant to the area people by means of nightclubs, events, eating places, and bars, however the area people is left behind to “take the warmth for it within the media.”

“We’ve all type of been thrown to the wolves a little bit bit right here,” says Orchant. “I do know that it wasn’t anybody’s intention. However I noticed an interview lately, the place an epidemiologist referred to the Provincetown cluster because the canary within the coal mine. Yeah. You guys know what occurs to the canary, proper?”


Dr. William Hanage, an affiliate professor of epidemiology at Harvard’s public well being faculty, hopes individuals take the precise classes from what occurred in Provincetown. “Provincetown exhibits that it’s doable to take a reasonably large outbreak and produce it underneath management comparatively shortly,” he says. “And that ought to give us all a great deal of hope … I would love there to be a little bit of chill on the Ptown stuff. As a result of it’s really a hit story when seen within the spherical.”

Because the U.S. approaches fall and winter, and because the chilly climate returns throughout huge elements of the nation, individuals will once more be extra prone to collect indoors than outdoor. A month in the past, that didn’t seem to be such an enormous deal. The vaccines, that are each secure and extremely efficient at stopping severe illness, hospitalization, and loss of life, gave numerous individuals hope as they returned to some model of regular life. However what occurred in Provincetown this summer time exhibits that the emergence of the delta variant, its skill to contaminate totally vaccinated individuals, and their skill to unfold the virus complicates all that.

It’s been recognized for a while that enormous teams gathering indoors in poorly ventilated areas can contribute to the unfold of COVID. That’s why numerous eating places throughout the nation constructed makeshift outside areas over the previous 18 months, many retaining them open by means of harsh winter situations to make ends meet. Now, Provincetown has made it clear that gathering indoors — particularly in nightclubs — may very well be unsafe for everyone, vaccination standing however. Placing just a few tables on the sidewalk and calling it a patio is comparatively straightforward. Constructing a DJ sales space and a dance flooring on a sidewalk is a distinct proposition totally.

“The approaching months are going to be a extremely awkward dance in terms of dealing with delta as a result of it’s a particularly transmissible virus,” says Hanage. “The excellent news is, vaccines work rather well to guard towards the worst penalties. And if we give these vaccines a leg up by way of among the different stuff that we are able to do to restrict transmission, we’ll have a greater time of it than we might have in any other case.”

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